Instructions to Authors

Enacted: November 2, 2012 / Revised: December 16, 2015

As the official journal of the Society of Gastrointestinal Intervention, Gastrointestinal Intervention delivers original, peer-reviewed articles for gastroenterologists, interventional radiologists, surgeons, gastrointestinal oncologists, nurses and technicians who need current and reliable information on the interventional treatment of gastrointestinal and hepatopancreaticobiliary diseases. Regular features also include 'state-of-the-art' review articles by leading authorities throughout the world. Gastrointestinal Intervention will become an international forum for the description and discussion of the various aspects of interventional radiology, endoscopy and minimally invasive surgery.
The Journal is published annually on the last day of March, July, and October, which will be effected on January 1 in 2016. Its ISO abbreviated title is Gastrointest Interv.

1. Manuscript Submission

Manuscripts for Gastrointestinal Intervention may be submitted using online (http://www.gi-intervention.org/submission). For editorial questions, please contact us via e-mail office@gi-intervention.org, telephone (+82-2-473-0089), or fax (+82-505-273-0089).

Important information

  • Articles should be prepared and submitted in Microsoft Word (*.doc or *.docx). Manuscripts must be typed in English, double-spaced and 10 or 12-point type. All pages must be numbered consecutively starting from the title page.
  • You may use automatic page numbering, but do NOT use other kinds of automatic formatting such as footnotes.
  • Put text, references, tables, and legends in one file, with each table on a new page.
  • Please ensure that the following submission documents are also included, where applicable:
  • (1) Cover letter must include corresponding author's name, address, telephone and fax numbers, e-mail address, and state that all authors have contributed to the paper and have not submitted the manuscript, in whole or in part, to other journals.
  • (2) A conflict of interest disclosure statement (see relevant section below).
  • (3) Articles covering the use of human samples in research and human experiments must be approved by the relevant review committee (see relevant section below).
  • (4) Articles covering the use of animals in experiments must be approved by the relevant authorities.
  • (5) Articles where human subjects can be identified in descriptions, photographs or pedigrees must be accompanied by a signed statement of informed consent to publish (in print and online) the descriptions, photographs and pedigrees from each subject who can be identified (see relevant section below).
  • (6) Clinical trials should be registered in a primary national clinical trial registration site such as www.clinicaltrilas.gov, http://ncrc.cdc.go.kr/cris, or other sites accredited by WHO or the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors.
  • (7) Where material has been reproduced from other copyrighted sources, letter(s) of permission from the copyright holder(s) to use the copyrighted sources must be supplied.
  • (8) Articles should be written in English (using American English spelling) and meet the following basic criteria: the material is original, the information is important, the writing is clear, concise and grammatically correct, the study methods are appropriate, the data are valid, and the conclusions are reasonable and supported by the data. For non-native English speaking authors, we suggest that manuscripts be reviewed and edited by a native English speaker.

2. Types of Articles

2.1. Editorials

Editorials are invited articles or comments concerning a specific paper in the Journal or a topical issue in the field. Although editorials are normally invited or written by an Editor, unsolicited editorials may be submitted.
Typical length: 2000 words, 40 references.

2.2. Review Articles

These should aim to provide the reader with a balanced overview of an important and topical subject related to gastrointestinal and hepatopancreaticobiliary diseases, and highlight unresolved questions and future directions. Most reviews are solicited by the editors, but unsolicited submissions may also be considered for publication. Section headings should be: Abstract, Introduction, brief main headings, and References.
Typical length: 4000 words, 100 references.

2.3. Original Articles

These may be randomized trials, intervention studies, studies of screening and diagnostic tests, laboratory and animal studies, cohort studies, cost-effectiveness analyses, casecontrol studies, and surveys with high response rates, which represent new and significant contributions to the field. Section headings should be as follows: Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments (if applicable), References.
The Introduction should provide a brief background to the subject of the paper, explain the importance of the study, and state a precise study question or purpose.
The Methods section should describe the study design and methods (including the study setting and dates, patient samples or animal specimens used, inclusion and exclusion criteria, laboratory methods followed, or data sources and how these were selected for the study, essential features of interventions, the main outcome measures), and statistical procedures employed.
The Results section should comprise the study results presented in a logical sequence, supplemented with tables and/ or figures. The text not repeat data presented in the tables and/or figures.
The Discussion section should be used to emphasize new and important aspects of the study, placing the results in context with published literature, the implications of the findings, and the conclusions that follow from the study results.
Typical length: 3000 words, 80 references.

2.4. Case Reports

These are short discussions of a case or case series with unique features not previously described that make an important teaching point or scientific observation. Section headings should be: Abstract, Introduction, Case Report, Discussion, Acknowledgments (if applicable), References.
The Introduction should describe the purpose of the report, the significance of the disease and its specificity, and briefly review the relevant literature.
Case reports should include the general data of the case, medical history, family history, chief complaint, present illness, clinical manifestation, methods of diagnosis and treatment, and outcome.
The Discussion should compare, analyze and discuss the similarities and differences between the reported case and similar previously reported cases. The importance or specificity of the case should be restated when discussing the differential diagnoses. Suggest the prognosis of the disease and possibility of prevention.
Typical length: 1200 words, 30 references.

2.5. Complication Forums

These are short description of a single case with complication encountered that makes an important teaching point or possibility of prevention. Section headings should be: Abstract, Event Details, Discussion, Prevention, Teaching Point, Acknowledgments (if applicable), References.
Abstract should describe the summary of event and teaching point.
Event Details should include the general data of the event, medical history, family history, chief complaint, present illness, clinical manifestation, methods of diagnosis and treatment, complications, and patient's outcome.
Prevention should include how to avoid this complication or what to do differently such as case selection, alternative procedure, different approach, etc.
Teaching point should include the important point to learn from this complication or possibility of prevention.
Typical length: 1000 words, 10 references, 6 figures.

2.6. Letters to the Editor

These include brief constructive comments concerning previously published articles in the journal. Letters should have a title and include appropriate references, and include the corresponding author's e-mail address. Letters are edited, sometimes extensively, to sharpen their focus. They may be sent for peer review at the discretion of the Editors.
Typical length: 600 words, 5 references; 1 table and/or 1 figure may be included.

3. Manuscript Preparation

3.1. Title Page

The title page should include: category of paper, article title, names (spelled out in full) of all authors, academic degrees, the institutions with which they are affiliated (only 1 affiliation per author is permitted); indicate all affiliations with a superscripted lowercase number after the author's name and in front of the appropriate affiliation, short running title not exceeding 30 characters, separate word count for abstract and text, and the corresponding author details (name, address, phone and fax, e-mail information).

3.2. Abstract and Keywords

An abstract and 3-5 relevant keywords (in alphabetical order) are required for the following article categories: Review Article, Original Article, and Case Report.
Abstracts should be no more than 300 words in length. Abstracts for Original Articles should be structured, with the section headings: Background, Methods, Results, Conclusion. Abstracts for Review Articles and Case Reports are unstructured in one single paragraph. For Case Reports, it should include the significance and purpose of the case presentation, the diagnostic methods of the case, the key data, and brief comments and suggestions with regard to the case.
For selecting keywords, refer to the Index Medicus Medical Subject Headings (National Library of Medicine (US). MeSH [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 1954 [updated 2009, cited 2009 Nov 1]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh).

3.3. Main Text

The text for Original articles should include the following sections: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, and Discussion. The Introduction should be as concise as possible, without subheadings. The Methods section should be sufficiently detailed. Subheadings may be used to organize the Results and Discussion. Each section should begin on a new page.


Where a term/definition is 3 times or more in the text, it written in full when it first appears, followed subsequently by the abbreviation in parentheses (even if it was previously defined in the abstract); thereafter, the abbreviation is used.

Gene nomenclature

Current standard international nomenclature for genes should be adhered to. Genes should be typed in italic font and include the accession number. For human genes, use genetic notation and symbols approved by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (http://www.genenames.org/) or refer to PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez)


Systeme International (SI) units must be used, with the exception of blood pressure values which are to be reported in mmHg. Please use the metric system for the expression of length, area, mass, and volume.

3.4. References

Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of their references and for correct text citation.

3.4.1. In the main text, tables and figure legends

  • References should be identified using superscripted numbers, in numerical order, and be placed after punctuation.
  • References cited in tables or figure legends should be included in sequence at the point where the table or figure is first mentioned in the main text.
  • Do not cite abstracts unless they are the only available reference to an important concept.
  • Uncompleted work or work that has not yet been accepted for publication (i.e., "unpublished observation", "personal communication") should not be cited as references.

3.4.2. In the references list

  • References should be limited to those cited in the text and listed in the order in which they appear in the text.
  • References should include, in order, authors' surnames and initials, article title, abbreviated journal name, year, volume and inclusive page numbers. The last names and initials of all the authors up to 6 should be included, but when the number of authors is 7 or more list the first 6 authors followed by "et al". Abbreviations for journal names should conform to those used in MEDLINE.
  • If citing a website, provide the author information, article title, website address and the date you accessed the information.
  • Reference to an article that is in press must state the journal name and, if possible, the year and volume.

Examples are given below.

Standard journal article:

Bisdas T, Pichlmaier M, Wilhelmi M, Bisdas S, Haverich A, Teebken O. Effects of the ABO-mismatch between donor and recipient of cryopreserved arterial homografts. Int Angiol. 2011;30:247-55.

Journal supplement

Kaplan NM. The endothelium as prognostic factor and therapeutic target: what criteria should we apply? J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1998;32(Suppl 3):S78-80.

Journal article not in English but with English abstract

Kawai H, Ishikawa T, Moroi J, Hanyu N, Sawada M, Kobayashi N, et al. Elderly patient with cerebellar malignant astrocytoma. No Shinkei Geka. 2008;36:799-805. [In Japanese, English abstract]

Book with edition

Bradley EL. Medical and surgical management. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 1982, p. 72-95.

Book with editors

Letheridge S, Cannon CR, editors. Bilingual education: teaching English as a second language. New York: Praeger; 1980.

Book chapter in book with editor and edition

Greaves M, Culligan DJ. Blood and bone marrow. In: Underwood JCE, editor. General and systematic pathology. 4th ed. London: Churchill Livingstone; 2004, p. 615-72.

Book series with editors

Wilson JG, Fraser FC, editors. Handbook of teratology, vols. 1-4. New York: Plenum Press; 1977-78.


World Health Organization. World health report 2002: reducing risk, promoting healthy life. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2002.

Electronic publications

Duchin JS. Can preparedness for biological terrorism save us from pertussis? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004;158. Available from: http://archpedi.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/158/2/106. Accessed June 12, 2004.

Smeeth L, Iliffe S. Community screening for visual impairment in the elderly. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002(2):CD001054. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD1001054.

Item presented at a meeting but not yet published

Khuri FR, Lee JJ, Lippman SM. Isotretinoin effects on head and neck cancer recurrence and second primary tumors. In: Proceedings from the American Society of Clinical Oncology, May 31-June 3, 2003; Chicago, IL. Abstract 359.

Item presented at a meeting and published

Cionni RJ. Color perception in patients with UV- or bluelightfiltering IOLs. In: Symposium on cataract, IOL, and refractive surgery. San Diego, CA: American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery; 2004. Abstract 337.


Ayers AJ. Retention of resin restorations by means of enamel etching and by pins [MSD thesis]. Indianapolis: Indiana University; 1971.


American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Wisdom teeth. AAOMS Website. http://www.aaoms.org/ wisdom_teeth.php. Published 2008. Accessed September 25, 2010.

Company/manufacturer publication/pamphlet

Eastman Kodak Company, Eastman Organic Chemicals. Catalog no. 49. Rochester, NY: Eastman Kodak; 1977, p. 2-3.

3.5. Acknowledgments

General acknowledgments for consultations, statistical analysis, etc., should be listed after main body of text, before the references, including the names of the individuals involved. All financial and material support for the research and the work should be stated here clearly explicitly.

3.6. Tables

Tables are numbered consecutively, in the order of their citation in the text. Table legend example: Table 1 Demographic characteristics of patients [note: "Table 1" in bold font without end period; no end period after legend]. Shortening of some words inside table (NOT in table legend): year(s) → yr; month(s) → mo; hour(s) → hr; minute(s) → min; second(s) → sec; and → &. Use en dashes for empty entries. Footnotes are indicated using these symbols (in order of appearance): *, †, ‡, §, ||, ¶, ** [note: when > 10 footnotes, use superscripted lowercase letters]. Abbreviations used in the table, even when already defined in the text, should be defined and placed after the footnotes and presented like in this example: CT, computed tomography; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging. [note: the use of "," with a space on either side, semi-colon to separate, and a period after the last].

3.7. Figures

Figure legends should be submitted for all figures and should be brief and specific and placed on a separate sheet after the reference section. Figures must be in numerical order using Arabic numerals in the order of their citation in the text. Figures should be uploaded as separate files, not embedded in the manuscript file. Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please "save as" or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):

  • EPS: Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as "graphics".
  • TIFF: Color or grayscale photographs (halftones)-use a minimum of 300 dpi.
  • TIFF: Bitmapped line drawings-use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
  • TIFF: Combination of bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale)-use a minimum of 600 dpi.
  • DOC, XLS or PPT: If your electronic artwork is created in any of these Microsoft Office applications, please supply "as is".

Please do not:

  • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (like GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG) as the resolution is too low;
  • Supply files that are too low in resolution;
  • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Please note that the cost of color illustrations will be charged to the author.

4. Disclosure of Conflicts of Interest

The corresponding author must inform the editor of any potential conflicts of interest that could influence the authors interpretation of the data. Examples of potential conflicts of interest are financial support from or connections to pharmaceutical companies, political pressure from interest groups, and academically related issues. Conflict of interest statements will be published at the end of the text of the article, before the 'References' section. Please consult the COPE guidelines (http://www.publicationethics.org/) on conflict of interest. Even when there is no conflict of interest, it should also be stated.

5. Ethical Approval of Studies

For human or animal experimental investigations, appropriate institutional review board or ethics committee approval is required, and such approval should be stated in the methods section of the manuscript. For those investigators who do not have formal ethics review committees, the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki should be followed (World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects. Available at: http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/ index.html).

6. Redundant Publication or Duplicate Submission

Redundant (or duplicate) publication is publication of a paper that overlaps substantially with one already published in print or electronic media. Submitted manuscripts are considered with the understanding that they have not been published previously in print or electronic format (except in abstract or poster form) and are not under consideration in totality or in part by another publication or electronic medium. For more information, please refer to 'Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication' (Available at: http://www.icmje.org/recommendations/archives/2008_urm.pdf).
For the policies on the research and publication ethics not stated in this instruction, 'Ethical Policies' section of this Journal can be applied.

7. The Editorial and Peer Review Process

As a general rule, the receipt of a manuscript will be acknowledged within 2 weeks of submission; authors will be provided with a manuscript reference number for future correspondence. If an acknowledgment is not received in a reasonable period of time, the author should contact the Editorial Office.
Submissions are reviewed by the Editorial Office to ensure that it contains all parts. Submissions will be rejected if the author has not supplied all the material and documents as outlined in these author instructions.
Manuscripts are then reviewed by the Editors, who make an initial assessment. If the manuscript does not appear to be of sufficient merit or is not appropriate for the Journal, the manuscript will be rejected without review. Rejected manuscripts will not be returned to authors unless requested. All other manuscripts are sent to 2 or more expert consultants for double-blind peer review. Authors will usually be notified within 12 weeks of the initial acknowledgment of whether the manuscript is accepted for publication, rejected, or subject to revision before acceptance. However, do note that delays are sometimes unavoidable.

8. Similarity Check

Similarity Check is a multi-publisher initiative to screen published and submitted content for originality. To find out more about Similarity Check, visit http://www.crossref.org/crosscheck/index.html. All manuscripts submitted to Gastrointestinal Intervention may be screened, using the iThenticate tool, for textual similarity to other previously published works.

9. Copyright

Published manuscripts become the permanent property of the Society of Gastrointestinal Intervention, and must not be published elsewhere without written permission. A copyright transfer form should be downloaded in the submission site and submitted to the editorial office by fax or e-mail containing a scanned copyright transfer form on acceptance.

10. Publication Fees

The publication of article is free of charge, while the authors could be requested to pay actual cost when the special design or reprinting is necessary.


Current Issue

31 July 2017 Volume 6,
Number 2, pp. 85~150