Gastrointestinal Intervention 2018; 7(3): 150-154
Provocative mesenteric angiography for diagnosis and treatment of occult gastrointestinal hemorrhage
Charles Y. Kim*
Division of Interventional Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA
*Division of Interventional Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3808, 2301 Erwin Road, Durham, NC 27710, USA. E-mail address: (C.Y. Kim). ORCID:
Received: August 23, 2018; Revised: September 9, 2018; Accepted: September 9, 2018; Published online: October 31, 2018.
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cc This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Occult gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage can be a great challenge to both patients and physicians, exerting a great toll on patients and the healthcare system. While diagnostic capabilities for diagnosing GI bleeding are improving, particularly with the establishment of computed tomography angiography and capsule endoscopy as routine modalities, patients with intermittent massive GI bleeding continue to pose a diagnostic and management dilemma. In this review, the concept, efficacy, and safety of provocative mesenteric angiography is described. The body of literature suggests that this procedure is safe and effective in this patient population with little to no alternative options.
Keywords: Gastrointestinal bleeding; Gastrointestinal hemorrhage; Hemorrhage; Thrombolytic therapy

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